Land is held in trust by the community; with no single person in authority. 20 mentions J’aime. South Sudan, which gained independence from Sudan in 2011, has been engulfed in an armed conflict power struggle between two rival ethnic groups, the Dinka and the Nuer, since 2013. Stay on top of South Sudan latest developments on the ground with Al Jazeera’s fact-based news, exclusive video footage, photos and updated maps. During the Second Sudanese Civil War thousands of Dinka women and children were abducted and subsequently enslaved by members of the Missiriya and Rezeigat tribes. Fifty-six per cent of the beneficiaries are women and girls. Most of the 713,000 Azandes in South Sudan live in Western Equatoria, and they are the country's third largest ethnic group. Religion in South Sudan by the 2010 Pew Research on Religion. Marriage traditionally requires courting until the young man wins the girl’s consent, then he goes to her father and pays a small betrothal dowry. The Nile River system is the dominant physical feature, and all streams and rivers of South Sudan drain either into or toward the Nile. Tennet communities are governed by the ruling age set, called the Machigi lo̱o̱c. [15] The Luo seem to be one of the few ethnic groups embracing the concept of individual ownership of property, having a very complex system for inheritance based on the seniority of sons. During the 1970, the Unregistered Land Act ended the last remnants of colonial administrative systems, which were replaced by central-state system of leasing land for large farming operations. Some tribes are local to South Sudan and others are part of groups that spread across several national boundaries. Mercy Corps provided Grace, a South Sudanese refugee in Uganda, with seeds and tools to plant after she fled South Sudan. South Sudan has a long history of conflict and underdevelopment that predates its independence in 2011. As with most other surrounding tribes, the Bari embrace a cattle culture, the components of a typical traditional Bari dowry are made up of live animals, averaging 23 heads of cattle (cows, calves and bulls), 40 goats and sheep. JUBA, South Sudan (AP) — One county in South Sudan is likely in famine and tens of thousands of people in five other counties are on the brink of starvation, according to a new report by international food security experts.. Ongoing violence continues to keep people from their homes, damage markets and disrupt planting, all of which keeps them from getting the food they need to survive. However this initiative was criticised as it was to leave out countries with a high share of the Southern Sudanese diaspora, and rather count countries where the diaspora share was low.[8]. 2.5K likes. Luol Deng is a British professional basketball player who currently plays for the Chicago Bulls of the... John Garang. The language of the Murle is part of the Surmic language cluster. UN says a further 400 people have been abducted in communal conflicts during the same period as country struggles to emerge from years of war. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Lotuho people (part of the (para) Nilotic group), are primarily a pastoral people numbering over 207,000 (representing its 6th or 7th largest ethnic group[15]) located in Eastern Equatoria. Find out by taking this quiz about Africa. South Sudan is bounded on the north by Sudan; on the east by Ethiopia; on the south by Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; and on the west by the Central African Republic. The common language of these groups is Chadian Arabic. Updated January 18, 2020 05:30 AM Share on Facebook. The majority of South Sudanese refugees are living in neighboring countries such as Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Murle live primarily in the State of Jonglei, South Sudan, and practice a blend of African Traditional Religion and Christianity. South Sudan Humanitarian Fund Humanitarian Funds are set up for complex emergencies and support the highest-priority projects of the best-placed responders (including international and national NGOs and UN agencies) through an inclusive and transparent process that supports priorities set out in Humanitarian Response Plans (HRPs). The translation of their Arabic name is "Cowman." The Baggara of Darfur and Kordofan were the backbone of the Mahdist revolt against Turko-Egyptian rule in Sudan in the 1880s. However, with the civil wars in both Sudan and Ethiopia, they felt unprotected and the Murle formed their own militia. With a population of about 130,000, the Murle are the 11th largest ethnic group in South Sudan. The Nuer tended to resist the Arab and Turkish, which led to conflict with the Dinka, who supported the British. The SPLA later became the army of South Sudan. [15], In order to maintain ethnic harmony in a part of the world in which tribal conflict is relatively commonplace, one group has proposed the creation of a "House of Nationalities" to represent all 62 recognised groups in Juba. [23], The Acholi were originally from the Bahr el Ghazal region, but migrated south, to the area of Uganda during the late 17th century, creating Acholiland, and are one of Uganda's major ethnic groups. The indigenous languages with the most speakers are Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer, Bari, and Zande. Land is held by the community with the Moru economy agriculturally based, but they have of recent started to acquire livestock. He was appointed the Minister of Foreign Affairs on August 26, 2011 after having served as the caretaker Minister of Defense since July 10, 2011. Historically, most ethnic groups were lacking in formal Western political institutions, with land held by the community and elders acting as problem solvers and adjudicators. After its confluence with the left- (west-) bank tributary known as the Baḥr Al-Ghazāl, the Mountain Nile becomes the White Nile. The region also has a significant presence from Dinka (and other Nilotic people), the Shilluk people, and Murle people, as well as Moslem Arab tribes. [4] Many Southern Sudanese were also said to not have been counted "due to bad weather, really poor communication and transport networks, and some areas were unreachable, while many Southern Sudanese remained in exile in neighbouring countries, leading to 'unacceptable results', according [to] southern Sudanese authorities. Nowhere in the world has been in famine since one was declared nearly four years ago in South Sudan’s Unity state as civil war raged. The South Sudan People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. 56 talking about this. The White Nile (Baḥr Al-Abyaḍ) enters the country as the Mountain Nile (Baḥr Al-Jabal) from the south through rapids at Nimule on the Uganda border. The clays of Al-Sudd were deposited in the area of impeded drainage. Because of the poverty in the area, the easiest way to secure a bride is to steal cows from other tribes. They speak the Didinga language (part of the Surmic language family) also spoken by a groups living in southwest Ethiopia from whence they migrated from in the 1700s. Historically there have been attacks by the Azande and the raids by slavers from Congo. Because of this, British energies in the north were free to be directed toward modernization efforts, whereas in the south they were more focused on simply maintaining order, leading to a dichotomy of development between north and south that continued for several decades. If a killing took place, negotiations for blood money were led by the victim's family, followed by rituals of reconciliation to restore the killer to the community and bring peace between the clans. On the Uganda border there are massive ranges with peaks rising to more than 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). By the mid 1800s, the Ottomans and Arabs raided the Shilluks for cattle and slaves. John Garang de Mabior was a Sudanese politician and leader. Média dans la catégorie « People of South Sudan » Cette catégorie comprend 75 fichiers, dont les 75 ci-dessous. The Dinka people are the largest group in South Sudan, representing 35.8% of the population in 2013[21] (depending on the source, between 1 and 4 million people) and live primarily in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan's historic provence of Bahr el Ghazal. TELL YOUR STORIES TO THE WORLD, SOUTH SUDAN! South Sudan cost of living, internet speed, weather and other metrics as a place to work remotely for digital nomads. Likewise, according to the Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress: "in the early 1990s possibly no more than 10% of southern Sudan's population was Christian". [39], During the early part of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire invaded the Sudan, searching for slaves, ivory and gold. South Sudan, a nation embracing its identity through its skin. "Uitstel voor census Soedan". Insecurity and lack of access have left some 100,000 people facing starvation in parts of South Sudan, and famine was declared on 20 February. The same White Army have clashed with the Murle rebellion and later on fought for relatives massacred in Juba over the SPM crisis. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. SOUTH Sudan People's Parliament, Nairobi. In 1920 the Sudan applied a Closed District Ordinance whose purpose was to limit the Arab—Islamic influences and preserve the African identity of the South Sudan, which also restricted the movement of nomadic pastoral tribes. It is common to conduct cattle raids against neighbors. In 1983 a member of the Dinka group, John Garang de Mabior founded the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, which led to the Second Sudanese Civil War. However, they are primarily dependent on sorghum, and drought can cause severe food shortages. David Barrett, Geo. Historically, the Shilluk people (part of the Nilotic group) created the Shilluk Kingdom which existed in Southern Sudan from 1490 to 1865. [25] The Azande also appear to be one of a few groups of people in South Sudan that do not embrace the cow culture, requiring dowries of cows for marriage. South Sudan People's Parliament is the forum where South Sudanese Youth view out their grievances to the government. Significantly, it also granted southern Sudan semiautonomous status and stipulated that a referendum on independence for the region would be held in six years. In the world’s youngest country, skin whitening and the issue of colourism is linked to a complex history. The Azande are sometimes pejoratively known as Niam-Niam (or Nyam-Nyam), which appears to be of Dinka origin, and means great eaters in the Dinka language, supposedly referring to cannibalistic propensities. The Ironstone Plateau lies between the Nile-Congo watershed and the clay plain; its level country is marked with inselbergs (isolated hills rising abruptly from the plains). Coauthor of. South Sudan was settled by many of its current ethnic groups during the 15th–19th centuries. Associate Professor of History, Kean University, Union, New Jersey. Sadly, 63 percent of South Sudanese refugees are under the age of 18. S. Sudan’s Makuei says county’s money being diverted to Kenya, Uganda, urges youth to join private sector. Omissions? Tribal clashes broke out Monday in Sudan’s South Darfur state, killing at least 47 people, a tribal leader said, shortly after violence in a neighboring st Today most Acholi are Christian. A group of people decide they will make gardens in a certain place, and the group decide the boundaries of each person's garden. [37] The Moru are highly educated, partly because of the work of the Church Missionary Society, with a large number becoming medical professionals. A South Sudanese man carries the flag (5925642623).jpg 4 000 × 3 000 ; 4,67 Mio. In the late 19th century, British, Arab and Turkish traders exerted influence in the area. definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2009 est.). [16] President Salva Kiir Mayardit declared at the ceremony marking South Sudanese independence on 9 July 2011 that the country "should have a new beginning of tolerance where cultural and ethnic diversity will be a source of pride".[17]. More than 1,000 killed in six months in South Sudan. The Luo People are primarily found in Kenya (where they are the third largest ethnic group with over 2 million), Tanzania (population just under 2 million), and the South Sudan State of Western Bahr el Ghazal (population about 171,000) - by some accounts the Luo are the 8th largest ethnic group in South Sudan. This represents an increase of about 64,000 people since December 2014 (UNOCHA, July 2015). A woman in a wheelchair is assisted to fill in the forms (7175855507).jpg 2 560 × 1 920 ; 2,04 Mio. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/South-Sudan, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - South Sudan, South Sudan - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), South Sudan - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The humanitarian situation in South Sudan has deteriorated dramatically due to the devastating combination of conflict, economic decline and climatic shocks. The population count was a determining factor for the share of wealth and power each part of Sudan received. From 1983 to 2005, he led the … Processes of urbanization are a source of significant cultural change and societal conflict. While most Azande are now Christian, there is a sub-culture that views witchcraft as an inherited substance in the belly which lives relatively independent of the host. According to UNICEF, fewer than one per cent of girls complete primary education. The Bari tend to have two weddings, a traditional Bari wedding, typically an arrangement between families, that are sometimes made when the children are as young as 10, includes betrothal and dowry negotiations. [15] There is no clear political organization among the Toposa, although respect is paid to elders, chiefs and wise men. Laws were passed 1944, that gave farmers superior rights over herders in land disputes. Prior to 2011, South Sudan was part of Sudan, its neighbour to the north. "[5] He also claimed the Southern Sudanese population to really be one-third of Sudan, while the census showed it to be only 22%. More than 30,000 people in South Sudan are likely to be in famine, while tens of thousands more are on the brink of starvation, international food security experts say. The challenges are particularly severe when it comes to girls; South Sudan has proportionately fewer girls going to school than any other country in the world. At least 12 aid workers were killed in 2018, bringing the toll to over 100 since December 2013. As is true with most of the surrounding countries, the tribe or clan is the primary local social unit, with tribal regions crossing several political boundaries. The U.N. Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan … By other estimates, there are at least 80 ethnic groups in South Sudan differentiated by various languages and dialects. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (, World Christian Encyclopedia, eds. [40], At the time of Sudan’s independence in 1956, Northern Moslems were appointed to senior positions in the south. South Sudan’s vast plains and plateaus are drained by the Nile River and its tributaries. Kenya’s Kakuma refugee camp and its expansion site, Kalobeyei settlement, host more than 106,000 South Sudanese refugees, one of the largest South Sudanese refugee populations in the world. The tribes are fragmented into clans of politically separate communities with customs against intermarriage among clans. Dinka is a standard language in South Sudan; however, its dialects are not all mutually intelligible. [30] In the early 1990s, official records of Sudan claimed that from population of what then included South Sudan, 17% of people followed African Traditional Religion and 8% were Christians. South Sudan: Children and young people undergo rights training . South Sudan is home to around 60 indigenous ethnic groups and 80 linguistic partitions among a 2018 population of around 11 million . The Tennet have an account of how they were once part of a larger group, which also included what are now Murle, Didinga, and Boya, the other members of the Surmic language family. Despite some obstacles, the eagerly awaited referendum did take place: a weeklong vote on independence for southern Sudan was held January 9–15, 2011, with the results indicating the south’s overwhelming preference to secede. Their king was considered divine, and is now a traditional chieftain within the governments of both Sudan and the South Sudan state of Upper Nile. Find high-quality royalty-free vector images that you won't find anywhere else. South Sudan remains one of the most dangerous places to be an aid worker. South Sudan Very small groups reported, but outside the Joshua Project Small Group Policy . Share if you support this lyrics for Peace form youths of South Sudan South Sudan News The central government inhibited their return. At the heart of the country is a clay plain, the centre of which is occupied by an enormous swampy region known as Al-Sudd (the Sudd). South Sudan’s population, predominantly African cultures who tend to adhere to Christian or animist beliefs, was long at odds with Sudan’s largely Muslim and Arab northern government. Where is Serengeti National Park? Today, most ethnic groups still embrace a cattle culture in which livestock is the main measure of wealth and used for bride wealth. South Sudan was established as a new country in 2011 after a deadly civil war. In 1978 construction began on the Jonglei (Junqalī) Canal, which was planned to bypass Al-Sudd swamp and provide a straight well-defined channel for the Mountain Nile River to flow northward until its junction with the White Nile. 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